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SQL History

SQLLearn basics of SQL

Structured Query Language, or just SQL, is a programming language for database manipulation. It acts as a unique programming language and works on the server side. If you want to maximize SQL learning efficiency, it would be great to renew knowledge or learn some basics about relational algebra and calculus. For experienced SQL programmers has prepared SQL tutorials and videos for any difficulty level. Our advice is to learn and build own SQL projects on LCTV at the same time. This way experienced SQL programmers will have insights about your progress/work and can help with concrete tips.


Introduction to SQL

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It works on the server side and acts as a unique programming language to maintain a relational database. It performs CRUD operations on the database, such as Create, Read, Update, and Delete.

SQL programming language is created using relational algebra and calculus(tuple relational). So, if anyone who want to learn SQL, they need to at least learn some basics of relational algebra and calculus. With SQL, you can run basic queries such as update, insert, delete, and read. All the queries interact directly with the database and help enable the application to work with the data seamlessly. With such features, it is sometimes described as declarative language (4GL).

SQL History

SQL journey started by Edgar F.Codd’s relational model. In his 1970’s paper of “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks,” described SQL as one of the first commercial languages to handle the relational model. But, it didn’t receive any attention then. Later on, it is picked by the big organization, and in no time it became popular.

To ensure proper growth and usage, SQL received standardized in 1986 from the American National Standards Institute(ANSI). It received similar treatment from the International Organization for Standardization(ISO) in 1987. With each passing year, new feature-set is included into the standard to help it grow. Even though the standards are set, it is hard to find developers who follow them and hence it is common to see database systems not compatible with each other.

SQL Tools

SQL tools can help you gain a good advantage in your work. Most of the tools that we will discuss below work for different technology. Without much delay, let’s get started with the list.

  • SQL Server Data Tools (SSDT) can be used to build relational databases for different platforms such as Azure, SQL server, etc. It can also be used to create reporting services reports, integration services packages and much more. It works great with Visual Studio.
  • SQuirreL SQL is a simple to use database administration tool. It works great with Java and uses JDBC to interact with the database. It uses JDBC driver to do so. Furthermore, it also comes with syntax highlighter and the ability to code completely.
  • SQL Workbench/J is a cross-platform, DBMS-independent SQL query tool. It is written in Java and works on any system that offers Java Runtime Environment. With the tool, you can easily run scripts and also do import/export of SQL queries. It is free to use.
  • DBeaver is a free-to-use open-source tool for database administrators and developers. It works well with all the JDBC compliant databases such as Oracle, MySQL, IBM DB2, etc. With DBeaver, you can easily edit and browse databases and also export data. You can easily execute SQL queries and work on ER diagrams. The tool also supports plugins and let you add features on the go.
  • SQLite Database Browser lets you work directly on your database from the browser. It collaborates with the SQLite database and can be used to edit, design and create SQLite database files. SQLite Database Browser is free to use and is open source in nature.

Best SQL Books

Learning from books can never get old. Below we list the best SQL books. You can go through them one by one. For ease of use, the books are distinguished into beginners, intermediate and advanced categories.

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    SQL For Dummies

    by Allen G. Taylor

    This fun and friendly guide will help you demystify database management systems so you can create more powerful databases and access information with ease. Updated for the latest SQL functionality, SQL For Dummies, 8th Edition covers the core SQL language and shows you how to use SQL to structure a DBMS, implement a database design, secure your data, and retrieve information when you need it.

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    Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes

    by Ben Forta

    Whether you're an application developer, database administrator, web application designer, mobile app developer, or Microsoft Office users, a good working knowledge of SQL is an important part of interacting with databases. And Sams Teach Yourself SQL in 10 Minutes offers the straightforward, practical answers you need to help you do your job.

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    Sql Simplified: Learn to Read and Write Structured Query Language

    by Cecelia L. Allison

    This book simplifies the concepts of SQL, enabling anyone to quickly grasp the fundamentals of SQL. Each chapter includes examples, important notes and key terms. Additionally, this book highlights many key differences in SQL script used in a number of different database management system platforms and tests your comprehension of each chapter using quizzes and assignments. After completion of this book, you should feel confident using SQL in any relational database environment.

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    SQL in a Nutshell

    by Kevin Kline

    For programmers, analysts, and database administrators, SQL in a Nutshell is the essential reference for the SQL language used in today's most popular database products. This new edition clearly documents every SQL command according to the latest ANSI standard, and details how those commands are implemented in Microsoft SQL Server 2008, Oracle 11g, and the MySQL 5.1 and PostgreSQL 8.3 open source database products. You'll also get a concise overview of the Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) model, and a clear-cut explanation of foundational RDBMS concepts — all packed into a succinct, comprehensive, and easy-to-use format.

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    Real World SQL and PL/SQL: Advice from the Experts

    by Arup Nanda, Brendan Tierney, Heli Helskyaho, Martin Widlake

    This hands-on guide from Oracle Press shows how to fully exploit lesser known but extremely useful SQL and PL/SQL features―and how to effectively use both languages together. Written by a team of Oracle ACE Directors, Real-World SQL and PL/SQL: Advice from the Experts features best practices, detailed examples, and insider tips that clearly demonstrate how to write, troubleshoot, and implement code for a wide variety of practical applications. The book thoroughly explains underutilized SQL and PL/SQL functions and lays out essential development strategies. Data modeling, advanced analytics, database security, secure coding, and administration are covered in complete detail.

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    Study Guide for 1Z0-061: Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals: Oracle Certification Prep

    by Matthew Morris

    The books in the Oracle Certification Prep series are built in lockstep with the test topics provided by Oracle Education's certification program. Each book is intended to provide the information that will be tested in a clean and concise format. The guides introduce the subject you'll be tested on, follow that with the information you'll need to know for it, and then move on to the next topic. They contain no drills or unrealistic self-tests to bump the page count without adding value. The series is intended to provide a concentrated source of exam information that is compact enough to be read through multiple times.

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    SQL Tricks (Advanced Database Programming)

    by Chris Fehily

    This cookbook of advanced techniques is for anyone who knows the basics of SQL and wants to move beyond simple SELECT-FROM-WHERE queries. You'll find solutions to problems that analysts, app developers, and database programmers often face, from simple tasks, like picking random rows, to complex operations, like traversing hierarchies. Each recipe includes a discussion of the underlying logic, important concepts, and best practices. Take full advantage of standard (ANSI/ISO) SQL, or use DBMS-specific features that dramatically extend the power of standard SQL. Use the scores of code examples directly in real-world DBMS applications, or as a source of insight for related problems.

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    Professional Microsoft SQL Server 2016 Reporting Services and Mobile Reports

    by Paul Turley

    Professional Microsoft SQL Server 2016 Reporting Services and Mobile Dashboards provides a comprehensive lesson in business intelligence (BI), operational reporting and Reporting Services architecture using a clear, concise tutorial approach. You'll learn effective report solution design based upon many years of experience with successful report solutions. Improve your own reports with advanced, best-practice design, usability, query design, and filtering techniques. Expert guidance provides insight into common report types and explains where each could be made more efficient, while providing step-by step instruction on Microsoft SQL Server 2016. All changes to the 2016 release are covered in detail, including improvements to the Visual Studio Report Designer (SQL Server Data Tools) and Report Builder, Mobile Dashboard Designer, the new Report Portal Interface, HTML-5 Rendering, Power BI integration, Custom Parameters Pane, and more.

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    Pro SQL Server Internals

    by Dmitri Korotkevitch

    Pro SQL Server Internals covers a multiple SQL Server versions starting with SQL Server 2005 all the way up to the recently released SQL Server 2014. You’ll learn about new SQL Server 2014 features including the new Cardinality Estimator, In-Memory OLTP Engine (codename Hekaton), and Clustered Columnstore Indexes. With Pro SQL Server Internals, you have a solid roadmap for understanding the depth and power of the SQL Server database backend, regardless of the version and edition of SQL Server you use.

SQL Projects

There are plenty of SQL projects. The tools that we have mentioned can also see as projects. But, below are some of the proper implementation of SQL in real world scenario. Let’s go through them one by one.

A .NET based education system that utilizes SQL to store information. It offers key features such as full student support, exam facilities, an online platform to submit homework and much more.

Explore this project!

It is yet another simple web project using SQL. The app handles cab services and enables anyone to get cabs easily.

Explore this project!

Inventory control system is one of the common projects you can do with SQL. Almost every company with deliverables use inventory control system to improve their systems. The project can help you understand how inventory control works.

Explore this project!

Remote Device Explorer system is created for educational institutes computer laboratory. It uses client-server architecture and ensures that the end user can use it without any issues.

Explore this project!

Flex Business Catalyst is a service oriented app that lets gauge relation between the performance of tasks to the completion of projects.

Explore this project!

SQL Server Community

A great deal of up to date information can be found at, you can also subscribe to their newsletter

PASSChapters are local user groups that meet regularly in communities around the world. They share their passion and knowledge about Microsoft SQL Server and Business Intelligence.

PASS blogs directory focused mainly on SQL.

SQL forums are as follows:

SQL Gurus

  • Marco Arment

    Subramani Paramasivam

    Dr. SubraMANI Paramasivam is a well-known personality with over 18+ years experience in BI and DB. He is also a Principal Consultant at DAGEOP and a Microsoft Certified Trainer. His work surrounds around performance and data, and he has worked on them extensively. He has also been a principal speaker on multiple topics such as DBA, Resource Governor, T-SQL Programming, etc.

  • Jimmy May

    Jimmy May has proven his mantle in the database field. He is a SQL Server Solutions Architect and works for the Data Propulsion Labs at SanDisk. He also holds the valued Microsoft Certified Master(MCM).

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    Niko Neugebauer
  • Niko Neugebauer

    Niko Neugebauer

    Niko Neugebauer is a popular entity in the SQL community. He has been a SQL Server MVP for more than 20 years and has shown great work in the field of the data platform. He is currently working as a BI Consultant at OH22. He also maintains the community surrounding SQL and presents ideas to improve them. He is also the author of blog series that covers more than 80+ posts.

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  • Edwin M Sarmiento

    Edwin M Sarmiento is a technology passionate person that works for Microsoft technology. With wide interest in technology, he has also contributed to the database field. Most of his work revolves around improving database usage on Microsoft technologies. He has been a Microsoft Certified Master and Microsoft Data Platform MVP.

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    Michael 'Mike' Mata
  • Luke Wroblewski

    Joseph D'Antoni

    Joseph D'Antoni is our last SQL guru in the list. He has over a decade of experience and is a senior architect. He has been the SQL Server MVP and worked with many Fortune 500 companies. He also loves to speak in major tech events. Furthermore, he has released many white papers including “Power BI in a Hybrid Environment”.

    Twitter Profile

SQL Conferences

  • PASS Summit

    PASS Summit is a popular summit where you can find prominent leaders offering training, tricks, tips and much more. You can make new connections and take your career to new levels. Every year, more than 4000 people attend the summit.

  • Microsoft Ignite

    is a Microsoft Data Science Summit that offers great value for anyone who is interested in Data. It is a two-day event with a focus on machine learning, data science, big data and much more.

  • SQLintersection

    SQLintersection conference takes place in conjunction with SHAREPOINT and DEVIntersection. You can take the sessions with the Microsoft technologies such as Azure.

  • SQL Nexus

    SQL Nexus is a conference that enables you to learn more about Microsoft Data technologies and how SQL is helping them transform the path to data storage. They share insights and provide lessons for the IT experts who join the conference.

  • SQL Bits

    SQL Bits aims to provide the right platform for the SQL enthusiasts. It was started by a small group of enthusiasts and is for anyone who is interested in SQL services.